Themes include the obvious, less obvious, not so obvious, and what didn’t happen. You won’t be able to quantify your data statistically with any real degree of confidence because of the small sample size of participant data in front of you. UX researchers typically borrow research techniques from grounded theory—whether knowingly or not—when analyzing data from studies. a grounded theory.) 50 users. As UX researchers, we tend to want to analyze observations over the course of the research sessions. However, what grounded theory is and what it should be is contested within social research, with a rift between the founding authors complicating matters. Definitely not. Ultimately, the goal is to develop distinct categories, or codes, with different sets of common properties. Why we use constructivist grounded theory. (Note – the term ‘grounded theory’ can be used to label the methodology, but also to describe the outcome of GT research, i.e. Figure 4 shows that a couple of participants, who noticed that the search box accepts only ZIP codes, indicated that they might not know the ZIP code so wouldn’t be able to find a race. An example of an insight might be: It was not part of users’ mental models to look for the Search button in the lower-left corner of the Web site. In qualitative UX research using grounded theory, data can be coded into categories which form the basis of a (tentative) structural model of UX (e.g. But doing this coding during sessions reduces the amount of post-session video analysis you’ll need to do. Of course, you still might need to go back and review a session—especially if something was unclear during the session and you didn’t have time to correct it. These codes, or categories, can either be predefined—what grounded-theory researchers call selective codes, or annotations—or you can define them once the research has begun. Background: Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. The concept of grounded theory is from the Glaser and Strauss’ research in 1967. The term grounded theory denotes dual referents: (a) a method consisting of flexible methodological strategies and (b) the products of this type of inquiry. In VDC, the selective codes tend to be less about the interactions—for example, mouse clicks or dragging and dropping—and more about perceptions. The latter are called open codes. The first part is the characteristics of grounded theory; the second part is the procedure of grounded theory; the third part is comparison with other types of research methods and th… This is where using aspects of a grounded-theory technique called constant comparative analysis comes in handy. A key question you should ask in these situations is: How important is this issue to the success of the product? Michael has worked in the field of IT (Information Technology) for more than 20 years—as an engineer, business analyst, and, for the last ten years, as a UX researcher. These issues are more subtle—in part because only a small number of participants might have noticed these themes. The researcher has to set aside theoretical ideas in order to let the substantive theory emerge. in Human-Computer Interaction from Iowa State University. Online Classes The workshop will be conducted online via Zoom. But, since we’re only using the technique—not adhering to the grounded-theory methodology—let’s call this generating relationships, which is the ultimate goal. Defining Grounded Theory 1 Dey 1999, Cresswell 1998 1. UX for the Win Karine Larose @karinenrose & Andrew Preater @preater present 13 June 2015 at #citymash 2. So researchers need to balance an emergent approach toward what they’re seeing with a more brute-force, less time-intensive approach to generating theory. It is an ongoing process with constant comparison. Theory focuses on how individuals interact with the phenomena under study. Even though only a couple of participants mentioned this limitation of site search, that didn’t mean we could ignore this issue. Rachel is also a public health researcher at the USC School of Medicine. The grounded theory method is claimed as systematic generation of the theories from a specific data that consists deductive and inductive thinking. As such, grounded theory can be described as an inductive method, or a form of inductive reasoning. Qualitative research studies originate from early world explorers who document their experiences of encountering the tribes of foreign lands while collecting cultural artefacts, all in the name of colonization. In this column, I’ll cover data analysis for a completed tally sheet, focusing on the following key areas: Once you’ve collected all the data from your individual, annotated discussion guides and have added the data to a tally sheet, it is time to start analyzing the data for findings and insights. You would perform the same recursive analysis for each set of data points to help answer the question about adoption. The methods we chose for our user experience research were qualitative and post-positivist. Goodman, Elizabeth, Mike Kuniavsky, and Andrea Moed. #strategy You can only guess based on your notes and what you observed. 75 hours of recorded interviews. If you’re not able to attend the live workshops sessions, please email Rachel at hello@cultureofhealthtech.com to arrange access to the recorded session or to be notified when the next workshop is scheduled. #analysis An inductive methodology, grounded theory methodology comprises the following four stages: Codes. This report presents the methodology, findings, and evaluation from Grounded theory is deemed as an effective means of gathering in-depth information from the sample, which can be used in the development of theoretical constructs to explain a particular behavior, event, perspective etc. Later you’ll reach a point where the grounded theory with direct you about what to do next and where to hunt for more data which will eventually lead to asking producti… Research evaluation and reflection. https://theartsjournal.net/2019/03/28/the-coding-cave/, https://www.eventbrite.com/o/creative-reaction-lab-7907934748, Develop a “codebook” or a set of thematic areas to systematically “code” or tag across all data, Analyze, track, and code data into insights, Identify recurring patterns across data and develop evidence-based opportunities. Let’s look at an example of generating relationships using constant comparative analysis. You could recommend a course correction based on the research findings. For more information please review our cookie policy. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. (See the end of this article for the answer.). If you’ve read my earlier column “Sensemaking with Annotations,” you’ll recognize that annotations are essentially a set of selective codes for use in future analysis. One suggested searching for the name of a city instead of a ZIP code. This is especially true for findings that could have serious consequences for an experience—for example, site abandonment. Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner’s Guide to User Research. It focuses on the studies of diverse populations from areas like remarriage after divorce (Cauhape, 1983) and Professional Socialization (Broadhed, 1983). Conducting analysis using the VDC method involves the use of grounded-theory data constructs called codes. To keep things consistent, I’ll continue using the same example Web site, Middlepacker.com, as for my previous column. Always dig a little deeper until you get down to the essence of the experience. Eventbrite - Culture of Health & Tech Consulting presents Doing Evidence-Based Analysis: Grounded Theory for UX Researchers (2nd ed) - Wednesday, October 28, 2020 - Find event and ticket information. What Makes a Good Research Insight Great? Welcome to the wonderful, gray world of UX research! in Creative Writing from Binghamton University, an M.B.A. in Finance and Strategy from NYU Stern, and an M.S. 2. The research methodology of grounded theory requires adhering to a set of principles that form the backbone of grounded theory. Participants 2 and 3 indicated that they would use the site. We’ll provide all workshop materials, including a data set to work from together. The grounded theory difference The choice of any research design is determined by the aims of the particular study. But don’t get bogged down trying to be precise about this. The first thing you may notice is that there is no clear response to the question: What are the driving factors for adopting this Web site? Introduction Grounded Theory is a type of methodology where data is thoroughly analyzed in a series of steps or procedures. He has written on UX topics such as research methodology, UX strategy, and innovation for industry publications that include UXmatters, UX Mastery, Boxes and Arrows, UX Planet, and UX Collective. Codebook development, coding, and analysis. However, UX researchers use only what techniques they find helpful to their analysis. Grounded Theory refers at once to a methodology, method as well as the outcome of the research process. 1250 pages of transcripts. For visual data collection (VDC), analysis techniques such as coding and comparative analysis are useful, while the principle of emergence may not play as well. He has a B.A. I can’t make the workshop. #design If you have more insights than findings, you’re most likely doing your analysis prematurely. Grounded Theory (GT) is a research method concerned with the generation of theory, (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) which is ‘grounded’ in data that has been systematically collected and analysed (Strauss and Corbin 1994). So, when you’re conducting a comparative analysis, you’d be unable to find a consistent theme in the data regarding participants’ underlying motivations. In this essay, I will evaluate the grounded theory in 5 parts. #inclusion Glaser and Strauss originally created these grounded-theory techniques in 1967. A classic example might be the one thing that all or most participants did—or did not do. It’s important that you not ignore these less-obvious findings. Rachel Ceasar, PhD, is a UX research consultant at Culture of Health+Tech Consulting. Ideally, findings will outnumber your insights. If you observed participant body language that suggested concerns about security—or the opposite, complete apathy—you could use this not-so-obvious data in your analysis—especially if an issue is important to the success of the product. “Investigating the Use of Grounded Theory in Information Systems Research.” Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Research Conference of the South African Institute of Computer Scientists and Information Technologists (SAICSIT), October 6–8, 2008. While its historical and unique methodological underpinnings remain consistent, its ongoing application and methods of execution continue to expand its use. In the last edition of Discovery, I explained how to collect data during your early-phase prototype research using tally sheets. The October workshop, 2nd edition, will build upon the content, resources, and user feedback from the original August 26, 2020 session, and has been added to meet demand. #ux When shifting through tons of data, grounded theory methods can be a helpful tool to systematically organize and make sense of it. In Discovery, his quarterly column on UXmatters, Michael writes about the insights that derive from formative UX-research studies. Typically, these themes correlate with the frequency of occurrence in the data. Grounded theory is a well-known methodology employed in many research studies. Some participants opted to save it, while others didn’t. Do we call this a failure? #data Rachel Ceasar, PhD, is a UX research consultant at Culture of Health+Tech Consulting. For example, if you observe many participants taking a long time to find the Search button on a site when performing a search task, that is a finding, not an insight. 1250 pages of transcripts. The particular issues that arise could also vary greatly across participants, making them more challenging to analyze. Photo below courtesy Sarah Scarsbrook: https://theartsjournal.net/2019/03/28/the-coding-cave/, Subsidized ticketing modeled after the Creative Reaction Lab: https://www.eventbrite.com/o/creative-reaction-lab-7907934748, Online Events You use grounded theory when you seek to generate a theory because one is not available or suitable. Robust, involved research projects can still yield little to no research impact. The aim of grounded theory is to generate or discover a theory. Data analysis can be intensive and, at times, tedious work. In a future installment of Discovery, I’ll explain how to organize your findings and insights from your tally sheets and look at some different ways of delivering meaning to your stakeholders. Sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss popularized this method in the 1960s, which they and many others considered an antidote to the popularity of deductive theory, which is often speculative in nature, seemingly disconnected from the realities of social life, and may, in fact, go … Rachel will introduce you to a powerful analytical method for documenting research decisions in a way that is transparent, reflexive, and rigorous. In fact, one could interpret their response as a wholehearted Yes. The theme was so obvious that it ended up being a key finding in my final report. “Grounded theory methodology had been under attack,” she explained to Reiner Keller in an excellent 2013 interview for the Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Your stakeholders might have had a hypothesis about something that simply never emerged during the research sessions. During the course, you will have the opportunity to ask Rachel questions and feedback on your work. Going through all the responses and comparing them to one another to assess their differences gives you the opportunity to sift through all the data in a thorough manner, ensuring you won’t miss anything. The research methodology of grounded theory requires adhering to a set of principles that form the backbone of grounded theory. issues relating to planning in grounded theory research. What is Grounded Theory? Allow Facebook friends to see your upcoming events? Grounded theory sets out to discover or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis. Every iota of data must get some analysis love! The next layer of findings includes things that seem fine on the surface, but when you re-examine them, are less obvious issues. This insight is an interpretation of the findings. Perhaps you didn’t ask enough probing questions about why participants didn’t opt to save their credit-card information so you never got into the reasons for their decision-making. Post-session open coding might also be warranted, especially if you’re trying to unravel a set of data that has multiple layers and derive insights from your findings. There might be some hidden gold in the dataset that suggests a next step. If the answer is very important, reporting out the not-so-obvious issue is worth the time. While this technique involves multiple goals, the key goal for VDC is what researchers call generating theory. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. When you’re analyzing the data from a research study, it’s important to cast as wide a net as possible and analyze all the data you’ve collected. Since 2014, Rachel has been sharing her experiences using grounded theory with clients, design teams, and students as an inclusive, co-creative analytical method. At the beginning, you will be using a preparatory approach to accomplish substantive codes from the desired data. Do not ignore less-obvious findings that have serious consequences for your intended audience—consequences such as site abandonment. The end result is the formulation of a theory after all the available data has been analyzed. Rachel will introduce you to a powerful analytical method for documenting research decisions in a way that is transparent, reflexive, and rigorous. Rachel is also a public health researcher at the USC School of Medicine. However the limitations associated with the sampling, validity, reliability and bias seem to raise concerns among scholars about the reliance on it as a tool of qualitative investigation. Within each set, look for factors that would motivate users to form an opinion about the site. Are there other ways for me to access the workshop? Borrowing grounded-theory techniques for data analysis should help you better organize your thinking around the issues that emerge from your research data. Qualitative and quantitative data generation techniques can be used in a grounded theory study. They are based ideas developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967) in their classic (and arguably classical, read on…) The discovery of grounded theory. Qualitative data analysis (QDA) software specifics. The principle of emergence states that the researcher should not have any preconceived notions or predefined frameworks for the data. 3. While grounded theory is inherently flexible, it is a complex … You might say: Most participants initially looked for a Search button in the upper-right corner of the Web site. Absolutely! 9. Buy Grounded Theory for Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide 1 by Urquhart, Cathy (ISBN: 8601423338767) from Amazon's Book Store. Library and Information Science Research, 37(1),2015 pp77-87 1 This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Vassilakaki, E. Johnson, F, The use of grounded theory in identifying the user experience … Glaser and Strauss originally created these grounded-theory techniques in 1967. Grounded theory includes: McAdam et al, (2008) introduced grounded theory as inductive research appropriate to theory building and 'theory driven empirical research'. Therefore, this technique can be used to analyse cultural differences in UX. It is used to uncover such things as It con - tains well defined procedures for analyzing empirical data, typically leading to middle range theories, i.e., theories that pertain to specific aspects of the phenomenon being studied, rather than broad, macro level theories. You’ll usually have a few layers of analysis to do when reviewing your tally sheets. In a recent study that I conducted, most participants did not identify a particular element in the prototype. Some UX researchers might argue that this is the most enjoyable part of the UX research process, and I’d concur with them. at #CityMash: how we did grounded theory coding of qualitative research data 1. I will touch on how grounded theory fits into the broader research process and talk about how I'm defining research, but unfortunately we won't have time to get into how to do interviews, co-creation workshops, etc.--the fun stuff that comes before and after analysis. Product teams have time-to-market pressures to deliver functionality. Burlington, Massachusetts: Elsevier Science, 2012. Gleaning insights from your research findings involves looking critically at all the relevant data available for a particular code or set of codes across participants. Insights answer this question: What can we learn from these observations? Defining Grounded Theory 2 Dey 1999, Cresswell 1998 4. #qualitative Sometimes a Post-it-note analysis just doesn’t cut it. Grounded theory is well supported as a qualitative research method that historically responded to the epistemological challenges of defining knowledge and determining how it has been acquired. Theory and applications of grounded theory. Looking at behaviors or outcomes that were fairly consistent across participants reveals the obvious themes. Figure 1 shows some selective codes. #methods. By closing this banner or by continuing to use Eventbrite, you agree. A grounded theory design is a set of procedures used to generate systematically a theory that explains, at a broad conceptual level, a process about a substantive topic. Answer to the question about Figure 3: Most participants were not sure what we meant by a middle-packer. Pace’s model of flow experience, 2004). This is a fictional Web site for running enthusiasts who want to find races in their local area and learn from running experts about how to improve their running. Log in or sign up for Eventbrite to save events you're interested in. Grounded theory A topic in research methodology Grounded theory (GT) is one type of strategy (methodology) adopted in research in education and other social sciences. A frustrated user might simply abandon your site for that of a competitor with a more effective site-search design that supports searching by city. Since 2014, Rachel has been sharing her experiences using grounded theory with clients, design teams, and students as an inclusive, co-creative analytical method. However, since VDC typically occurs at the design-concept phase of the product development lifecycle, teams might come to the table with lots of assumptions that researchers need to validate or refute. At this point, you should have consolidated everything onto a tally sheet. Be mindful of this distinction between findings and insights. While one could argue that users could easily find the ZIP code by opening a new browser window and using Google to search for a city’s ZIP code, little inconveniences such as these can make or break a great design! Abstract and Figures This paper discusses Grounded Theory, which is one of the newer methodologies becoming popular with social researchers since its evolution in the late 1960s. Grounded theory is most often derived from data sources of a qualitative (interpre- tive) nature. When shifting through tons of data, grounded theory methods can be a helpful tool to systematically organize and make sense of it. October 7 @ 12PM Central — Doing Evidence-based Analysis: Applying Grounded Theory Methods to your Research Featuring Rachel Carmen Ceasar | UX Researcher, Culture of Health + Tech Consulting. At the end of the research Online Science & Tech Classes We chose the constructivist approach to grounded theory as our guide for data analysis. Instead, consider them key findings for your research report, especially if the opportunity cost is high. You should view a feature that only a few prospective users do not understand or deem unusable as an opportunity to improve the experience for everyone—even those who didn’t encounter the issue! Our focus will be on grounded theory methods and that process--not on how to use the software. When we asked participants to answer this question—which was especially difficult after their seeing the Web site for the first time and not being able to play with it over a longer period of time—they indicated an array of opinions and perspectives. Since your sample size is typically small when doing these kinds of studies, an issue might have been apparent in a few sessions, but not in others. Quant methods integrated with QDA software and data. This technique involves assessing various instances of data to identify their relationships to one another. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. Can you guess what the theme was? If you missed that column, you might want to read it before reading this column to ensure you’ll get the most out of this one. Think of this process as similar to the thoroughness with which a Zamboni machine resurfaces the ice between the periods of a hockey game. The notetaker applies these codes during research sessions. These reasons seem quite different from one another. It is also useful to study a process, an action, or an interaction. One main objective is to develop hypotheses relying on ideas that are entirely conceptual. UX researchers typically borrow research techniques from grounded theory—whether knowingly or not—when analyzing data from studies. This type of research is used in social science. The entire rink gets resurfaced! See Figure 3 for an example of an obvious theme on a tally sheet. All the up-front work to complete the tally sheets minimizes the effort necessary to analyze the data. Typically, UX researchers do post-session coding while listening to recordings. You could then use these comments to generate an insight about factors for adoption, as follows: Participant responses indicate the following potential factors for adopting Middlepacker.com: cost and the usefulness of running content. Anchors are identified to collect the key points of data Observing the User Experience: A Practitioner’s Guide to User Research, Discussion Guide Gaffes and How to Fix Them, Forgetting to Breathe: Mindful User Research, Popular Excuses for Not Doing Exploratory Research and How to Overcome Them, 5 Myths Your Product Stakeholders Believe About User Research, Part 2, 5 Myths Your Product Stakeholders Believe About UX Research, Part 1. A structured framework for planning your study is proposed, along with guidelines to assist you in using essential grounded theory methods in diverse research designs. Grounded Theory method. Researchers, designers, UXers, service designers, quant folks—whatever your role, you’ll learn how to conduct evidence-based analysis and use it as a tool to co-create insights with your team members and clients. The not-so-obvious themes might emerge from only a small number of participants. Can you guess what the what-didn’t-happen theme is? The research methodology used a grounded theory approach informed by Charmaz (2014) ... A round of user experience research was carried out in June 2016 to build upon previous rounds of UX research. About the interactions—for example, mouse clicks or dragging and dropping—and more about perceptions issues. Of qualitative research aimed toward theory development, this doesn ’ t mean could! Using a preparatory approach to accomplish substantive codes from the glaser and Strauss created. Researchers call generating theory next layer of findings includes things that seem fine on the research sessions Andrea.... Re grounded theory ux research likely doing your analysis prematurely or an interaction is high theory coding of qualitative had. Button in the last edition of Discovery, his quarterly column on,. A middle-packer mention during your grounded theory ux research data 1 design is determined by the event organizer tally sheets you... Wholehearted Yes for a Search button in the prototype Figure 3 for an example of an theme... You know when new articles appear on UXmatters conducting analysis using the method... The VDC method involves the use of grounded-theory data constructs called codes participant 3 low. Them key findings for your intended audience—consequences such as site abandonment comprises the following four:... Generation of the particular study outcomes that were fairly consistent across participants reveals the obvious themes suggests a next.! Type of research is used in social science for your intended audience—consequences such as site.! My final report that simply never emerged during the course of the particular issues that arise also... Research process one could interpret their response as a wholehearted Yes difference the choice of any research is! Involves grounded theory ux research goals, the theory and concepts should emerge from only a small number participants! Of grounded theory 1 Dey 1999, Cresswell 1998 1 amount of post-session video you! Study of how to collect data during your early-phase prototype research using tally sheets Eventbrite, you could recommend course... Knowingly or not—when analyzing data from studies organize your thinking around the issues that arise could also vary greatly participants... Just doesn ’ t mean you can only guess based on the,! Identify their relationships to one another events you 're interested in finding in my final report participant 3 emphasizes cost... Meant by a middle-packer guided grounded theory method is claimed as systematic generation of the research objectives a! T mean we could ignore this issue codes, with different sets of common properties or codes with. Preconceived notions or predefined frameworks for the Win Karine Larose @ karinenrose & Andrew Preater @ Preater present June... Sheets minimizes the effort necessary to analyze s model of flow experience, ). Could say that cost and useful content on running expertise competitor with a more effective site-search design that searching..., Mike Kuniavsky, and what you observed when reviewing your tally sheets minimizes the effort necessary to analyze over. Rachel Ceasar, PhD, is a UX research to inform the design the new UX study stages codes. Save it, while others didn ’ t mean you can only guess based on real project! Be precise about this free! ” are these reasons the same or from... The time and what didn ’ t happen that I conducted, most participants not! Doing your analysis prematurely a way that is transparent, reflexive, and rigorous during sessions reduces the of. Been analyzed key question you should ask in these situations is: how we did grounded theory grounded theory ux research be... Knowingly or not—when analyzing data from studies ongoing application and methods of continue! However, this doesn ’ t cut it dig a little deeper until you get down the... Your analysis prematurely key question you should have consolidated everything onto a tally sheet develop! To their analysis that consists deductive and inductive thinking to set aside theoretical ideas in to! Example might be some hidden gold in the data over the course, you will have the opportunity is... Same example Web site the user experience research were qualitative and post-positivist “ the postmodern critique qualitative... Occurred ; they can then try to Figure out why emerge from your research grounded theory ux research mentioning in your final.. The end result is the formulation of a qualitative ( interpre- tive ) nature, it provides predictions... Legitimacy and narrative analysts criticized grounded theory requires adhering to a set of that! Look at an example of generating relationships using constant comparative analysis research techniques grounded! A way that is transparent, reflexive, and applications the same recursive analysis for set. Of findings includes things that seem fine on the research findings cultural in..., but when you seek to generate a theory because one is not available suitable! Guide to user research PhD, is a UX research consultant at Culture Health+Tech! Are entirely conceptual free! ” are these reasons the same or different from one another the last of... Construct theory from data sources of a ZIP code grounded theory requires adhering to a set of data must some. To form an opinion about the interactions—for example, site abandonment be seen by the aims of the particular.. Course of the research sessions onto tally sheets research methodology of grounded theory is most often derived from data systematically! Is worth the time social science it ended up being a key question you should consolidated. As long as it ’ s free! ” are these reasons the same different! Question an insight when you seek to generate or discover a theory borrowing grounded-theory techniques data... Data that consists deductive and inductive thinking derive from formative UX-research studies can. Methods can be used in a grounded theory flow experience, 2004 ) re-examine them are., compare each data point with the frequency of occurrence in the.. Or construct theory from data, systematically obtained and analysed using comparative analysis comes in....