Fue el noveno emperador del Imperio Azteca en el periodo de 1502 a 1520. Depiction in early post-conquest literature, Indigenous accounts of omens and Moctezuma's beliefs, Descendants in Mexico and the Spanish nobility. Biography of Emperador azteca Moctezuma II (1467-1520) Aztec monarch who clashed with the Spanish conquest, born in Tenochtitlan in 1466 and died in 1520, whose title was the Huey Tlatoani or 'Great orator'. Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, from 1502 until his death. [33] She had children by the latter two, from whom descend the illustrious families of Andrade-Montezuma and Cano-Montezuma. Modern scholars sometimes call him Moctezuma II to differentiate him from the other emperor of the name, but in his time the number was not used. As a kid, he learned many of the subjects that students today learn in school, like science and astronomy. He was killed soon after, and the Aztec empire came to an end. a comet, the burning of a temple, a crying ghostly woman, and others. Robert Himmerich y Valencia, ibid. Moctezuma continued to govern his empire and even undertook conquests of new territory during the Spaniards' stay at Tenochtitlán. Though some indigenous accounts written in the 1550s partly support this notion, it is still unbelievable for several reasons. Though two other Aztec rulers succeeded Moctezuma after his death, their reigns were short-lived and the empire quickly collapsed under them. Isabel Moctezuma was the daughter and legitimate heir of Moctezuma II. Kaiser Wilhelm served as emperor of Germany from 1888 until the end of World War I. Frederick II, known as Frederick the Great, was Prussia's king from 1740 to 1786. Her mother was Teotlalco who was also Moctezuma's principal wife. [29] As Aztec culture made class distinctions between the children of senior wives, lesser wives, and concubines, not all of his children were considered equal in nobility or inheritance rights. Oscar Hammerstein II collaborated with Richard Rodgers on popular musicals such as ‘Oklahoma!,’ ‘South Pacific,’ ‘Carousel,’ ‘The King and I’ and ‘The Sound of Music.’. He is also the subject of Roger Sessions' dodecaphonic opera Montezuma (1963), and the protagonist in the modern opera La Conquista (2005) by Italian composer Lorenzo Ferrero, where his part is written in the Nahuatl language. In the subsequent battles with the Spaniards after Cortés' return, Moctezuma was killed. 1520Muerte de Moctezuma II. Montezuma was born in Tenochtitlán, capital of the Aztec empire, and the present site of Mexico City. place of death: Tenochtitlan Montezuma II (also known as Moctezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma) was the ninth emperor of the Aztec Empire who ruled from 1502 to 1520. Moctezuma welcomed them, believing them to be gods, and offered them to stay in his palace. [21], Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc, who may have written the Crónica Mexicayotl, was possibly a grandson of Moctezuma II. [27] In any case it is within the realm of possibility that the description of Moctezuma in post-conquest sources was colored by his role as a monumental closing figure of Aztec history. As a symbol of resistance against the Spanish, the name of Moctezuma has been invoked in several indigenous rebellions. The Aztec people, however, resented the … The first contact between the indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, when conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to take over the Aztec capital Tenochtitlán. In the codex's description of the first meeting between Moctezuma and Cortés, the Aztec ruler is described as giving a prepared speech in classical oratorical Nahuatl, a speech which as described verbatim in the codex (written by Sahagún's Tlatelolcan informants) included such prostrate declarations of divine or near-divine admiration as, "You have graciously come on earth, you have graciously approached your water, your high place of Mexico, you have come down to your mat, your throne, which I have briefly kept for you, I who used to keep it for you," and, "You have graciously arrived, you have known pain, you have known weariness, now come on earth, take your rest, enter into your palace, rest your limbs; may our lords come on earth." 1519 Hernán Cortés entra en Tenochtitlán. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! [10], Moctezuma brought Cortés to his palace where the Spaniards lived as his guests for several months. Montezuma II Biography Montezuma II (also known as Moctezuma II) was trained as a priest and rose to become leader of the Aztecs in 1502. Juni 1520 in Tenochtitlán, Mexiko) war von 1502 bis zu seinem Tod 1520 Herrscher über das Reich der Azteken. Bancroft, Hubert Howe (1883) History of Mexico, Vol. Today his name has a lot of spellings, including Montezuma and Motecuhzoma. Historical portrayals of Moctezuma have mostly been colored by his role as ruler of a defeated nation, and many sources have described him as weak-willed, superstitious, and indecisive. Four leaders of the Aztec army met with Moctezuma to talk, urging their countrymen to cease their constant firing upon the stronghold for a time. True History of the Conquest of New Spain, General Jerónimo Girón-Moctezuma, 3rd Marquess de las Amarilas, http://whp.uoregon.edu/dictionaries/nahuatl/index.lasso, "A Descendant of Moctezuma at the Battle of Mobile, 1780", http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/aztec-capital-falls-to-corts, "Moctezuma Xocoyotzin y Hernán Cortés: dos visiones de una misma realidad", "Las reformas socio-económicas de Motecuhzoma II", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Moctezuma_II&oldid=991346159, 15th-century indigenous people of the Americas, 16th-century indigenous people of the Americas, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Moctezuma (spelled Montezuma) is portrayed in, Montezuma is a playable ruler for the Aztec in several of the, Several species of animals and plants such as, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:01. published in the United States in 1892. At the time, the Aztecs controlled most of what is now Mexico and Central America, their capital being at the great city of Tenotchitlan (Mexico City). Following the conquest, Moctezuma's daughter, Techichpotzin (or Tecuichpoch), became known as Isabel Moctezuma and was given a large estate by Cortés, who also fathered a child by her, Leonor Cortés Moctezuma, who in turn was the mother of Isabel de Tolosa Cortés de Moctezuma. • A reconstructed portrait of Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, based on historical sources, in a contemporary style. There he married Francisca de la Cueva de Valenzuela. During his reign, the Aztec Empire reached its greatest size. Synopsis When Montezuma II was born (circa 1466), the Aztec empire spread to present-day Honduras and Nicaragua. Cuitláhuac was Emperor for only 80 days because he died of smallpox. Su educación … Moctezuma Xocoyotzin (en náhuatl Motēuczōma Xōcoyōtzin; AFI [moteːkʷˈsoːma ʃoːkoˈjoːtsin]: ‘Moctezuma el joven’) o Moctezuma II (1466 - 29 de junio de 1520) fue tlatoani de los mexicas en el periodo 1502-1520. As the Spaniards approached Tenochtitlán they made an alliance with the Tlaxcalteca, who were enemies of the Aztec Triple Alliance, and they helped instigate revolt in many towns under Aztec dominion. Philip II reigned over Macedonia from 359 to 336 B.C. Therefore, to give the Spanish the necessary legitimacy to wage war against the indigenous people, Cortés might just have said what the Spanish king needed to hear. Townsend, Camilla. By the Princess Acatlan were left two daughters, baptized as Maria and Marina (also known as Leonor); the latter alone left offspring, from whom descends the Sotelo-Montezuma family. Moctezuma II biography timelines // 1466 Montezuma was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth Aztec Emperor, and Xochicueyetl. Moctezuma II. In this interpretation the description of Moctezuma, the final ruler of the Aztec Empire prior to the Spanish conquest, was tailored to fit the role of earlier rulers of ending dynasties—for example Quetzalcoatl, the mythical last ruler of the Toltecs. The original Nahuatl form of his name was pronounced Template:IPA. [31][32] Isabel married consecutively to Cuauhtémoc (the last Mexican sovereign), to a conquistador in Cortés' original group, Alonso Grado (died c. 1527), a poblador (a Spaniard who had arrived after the fall of Tenochtitlán), to Pedro Andrade Gallego (died c. 1531), and to conquistador Juan Cano de Saavedra, who survived her. We even blamed the Mercederian friar for not having persuaded him to become a Christian."[16]. Moctezuma II became Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan after the death of his father Axayacatl. Of his many wives may be named the princesses Teitlalco, Acatlan, and Miahuaxochitl, of whom the first named appears to have been the only legitimate consort. [24] Other parties have also propagated the idea that the Native Americans believed the conquistadors to be gods, most notably the historians of the Franciscan order such as Fray Gerónimo de Mendieta. [8], On 8 November 1519, Moctezuma met Cortés on the causeway leading into Tenochtitlán and the two leaders exchanged gifts. info)),[N.B. Xocoyotzin (IPA: [ʃokoˈjotsin]) means "honored young one" (from "xocoyotl" [younger son] + suffix "-tzin" added to nouns or personal names when speaking about them with deference[6]). Por razones de cortesía y respeto real se agregaba con frecuencia -tzin (sufijo reverencial en náhuatl)[3] para llamarlo. Hubert Howe Bancroft, writing in the 19th century (Native Races, Volume #3), speculated that the name of the historical Aztec emperor Moctezuma had been used to refer to a combination of different cultural heroes who were united under the name of a particularly salient representative of Mesoamerican identity. 1466 Nace en Tenochtitlán. Among his many children were Princess Isabel Moctezuma and sons Chimalpopoca (not to be confused with the previous huey tlatoani) and Tlaltecatzin.[30]. The leader of the Aztecs at the time of the Spanish conquest Montezuma II (also known as Moctezuma II) was trained as a priest and rose to become leader of the Aztecs in 1502. The name signifies frowning and kingly anger. Several lines of descendants exist in Mexico and Spain through Moctezuma II's son and daughters, notably Tlacahuepan Ihualicahuaca, or Pedro Moctezuma, and Tecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin, or Isabel Moctezuma. These were purportedly interpreted as signs of a possible disaster, e.g. 2]. Indeed, when we least expected it, they came to say that he was dead."[13]. He was quite free from sodomy. During his absence, tensions between Spaniards and Aztecs exploded into the Massacre in the Great Temple, and Moctezuma became a hostage used by the Spaniards to ensure their security.[N.B. It was stated that he had reigned for seventeen years, and was the best king they ever had in Mexico, and that he had personally triumphed in three wars against countries he had subjugated. He did not wear his hair long but just over his ears, and he had a short black beard, well-shaped and thin. Montezuma II (1466– c. 1520) Ninth Aztec emperor (r.1502–20), nephew and successor of Ahuitzotl. The veracity of this claim is difficult to ascertain, though some recent ethnohistorians specialising in early Spanish/Nahua relations have discarded it as post-conquest mythicalisation.[23]. Moctezuma (1466 - juin 1520), dont le nom s’écrit également selon certaines variantes orthographiques, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma et dont le nom originel complet en nahuatl est Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin [1], était le neuvième huey tlatoani (souverain) de Mexico-Tenochtitlan.C’est pendant son règne, de 1502 à 1520, qu’a commencé la conquête espagnole de l'empire aztèque. Moctezuma ll was the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. In the Quisteil rebellion of the Yucatec Maya in 1761, the rebel leader Jacinto Canek reportedly called himself "Little Montezuma".[39]. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Montezuma II was the last of the Aztec emperors, who was defeated by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés in 1520. [25] Bernardino de Sahagún, who compiled the Florentine Codex, was also a Franciscan priest. The grandson of Moctezuma II, Pedro's son, Ihuitemotzin, baptized as Diego Luis de Moctezuma, was brought to Spain by King Philip II. [citation needed], At some time during that period, Moctezuma became a prisoner in his own house. Primeiros anos. [20] Historian James Lockhart suggests that the people needed to have a scapegoat for the Aztec defeat, and Moctezuma naturally fell into that role. The Aztec emperor is the title character in several 18th-century operas: Motezuma (1733) by Antonio Vivaldi; Motezuma (1771) by Josef Mysliveček; Montezuma (1755) by Carl Heinrich Graun; and Montesuma (1781) by Niccolò Antonio Zingarelli. Moctezuma II, also known as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin (1466 - 1520) and often called Montezuma in English, was the Aztec emperor (tlahtoani) from 1502 to 1520. The Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés exploited this weakness … As was customary for sons of noble birth, he received an education in religion, science, arts, and military training. He described Moctezuma's issue and estimates them to be nineteen – eleven sons and eight daughters. [1] He changed the previous meritocratic system of social hierarchy and widened the divide between pipiltin (nobles) and macehualtin (commoners) by prohibiting commoners from working in the royal palaces.[1]. In his first description of Moctezuma, Díaz del Castillo writes: "The Great Montezuma was about forty years old, of good height, well proportioned, spare and slight, and not very dark, though of the usual Indian complexion. [9], According to Cortés, Moctezuma immediately volunteered to cede his entire realm to Charles V, King of Spain. In 1766, the holder of the title became a Grandee of Spain. In an effort to pacify his people, and undoubtedly pressured by the Spanish, Moctezuma was struck dead by a rock. He was in turn succeeded by another of Moctezuma’s uncles, Ahuitzotl. They came in two columns, pressed very close to the walls of the street, which is very wide and beautiful and so straight that you can see from one end to the other. Pagden has written that "There is no preconquest tradition which places Quetzalcoatl in this role, and it seems possible therefore that it was elaborated by Sahagún and Motolinía from informants who themselves had partially lost contact with their traditional tribal histories". He was succeeded by his adolescent nephew, Cuauhtémoc. The Spanish claimed Montezuma died at the hands of his own people; the Aztecs believed that the Spanish murdered him. 3] in their own right, and only some of his servants knew of it. The belief of the Aztecs being rendered passive by their own superstition is referred to by Matthew Restall as part of "The Myth of Native Desolation" to which he dedicates chapter 6 in his book Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest. Topics: Aztec, Hernán Cortés, Quetzalcoatl Pages: 1 (396 words) Published: March 7, 2013. During the siege of the city, the sons of Moctezuma were murdered by the Aztecs, possibly because they wanted to surrender. Während der ersten siebzehn Jahre seiner Herrschaft führte er die rigide Expansionspolitik seiner Vorgänger fort; wesentlich bekannter ist er jedoch aufgrund sei… People. Montezuma II was born around the year 1466 in the city of Tenochtitlan. The ninth ruler of the Aztec empire, Montezuma II (1466-1520) was seized by the Spanish conquistadores, who used him to control and rule the empire. We strive for accuracy and fairness. His prose is characterized by simple descriptions and explanations, along with frequent personal addresses to the King. The details of his death are unknown, with different versions of his demise given by different sources. By the following year, the Aztec Empire had fallen to an army of Spanish and their Native American allies, primarily Tlaxcalans, who were traditional enemies of the Aztecs. "The emperor Moctezuma", belonging to the work "The discovery and conquest of the new world : containing the life and voyages of Christopher Columbus", Moctezuma II was born in 1466 to Axayacatl, the sixth ruler of the Aztec Empire, and Xochicueyetl. Exactly why this happened is not clear from the extant sources. In Mexico, the contemporary Pames, Otomi, Tepehuán, Totonac, and Nahua peoples are reported to worship earth deities named after Moctezuma. [2] The Aztec chronicles called him Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, while the first was called Motecuhzoma Ilhuicamina or Huehuemotecuhzoma ("Old Moctezuma"). Leonor Cortés Moctezuma (born c. 1528), illegitimate daughter of Hernán Cortés and Isabel Montezuma https://www.biography.com/political-figure/montezuma-ii. Moctezuma II (c. 1466 – June 1520) was the ninth ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520.The first contact between Indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.During his reign the Aztec Empire reached its maximal size. It was situated at the present day location of Mexico City. p.195, 134–35. [7], When Cortés arrived in 1519, Moctezuma was immediately informed and he sent emissaries to meet the newcomers; one of them was an Aztec noble named Tentlil in the Nahuatl language but referred to in the writings of Cortés and Bernal Díaz del Castillo as "Tendile". [citation needed] One such example was the rebellion of the Virgin Cult in Chiapas in 1721, where the followers of the Virgin Mary rebelled against the Spanish after having been told by an apparition of the virgin that Moctezuma would be resuscitated to assist them against their Spanish oppressors. In Book 12 of the twelve-volume Florentine Codex, the account in Spanish and Nahuatl is accompanied by illustrations by natives. 1513 Los ejércitos aztecas llegan hasta el territorio de las actuales Honduras y Nicaragua. When his father died in 1481, the throne passed to one of his uncles, Tizocic, who reigned until 1486. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Regardless of the earlier orders to hold fire, however, the discussion between Moctezuma and the Aztec leaders was immediately followed by an outbreak of violence. Moctezuma had numerous wives and concubines by whom he fathered an enormous family, but only two women held the position of queen – Tlapalizquixochtzin and Teotlalco. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord," "he who is angry in a noble manner," or "he who angers himself." The firsthand account of Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of New Spain paints a portrait of a noble leader who struggles to maintain order in his kingdom after he is taken prisoner by Hernán Cortés. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Moctezuma ordered that he be kept informed of any new sightings of foreigners at the coast and posted extra watch guards to accomplish this. [22], Some of the Aztec stories about Moctezuma describe him as being fearful of the Spanish newcomers, and some sources, such as the Florentine Codex, comment that the Aztecs believed the Spaniards to be gods and Cortés to be the returned god Quetzalcoatl. He greatly expanded the Aztec Empire which reached its maximum size during his reign. His partnership with Tlapalizquixochtzin also made him a king consort of Ecatepec since she was queen of that city. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. He was a brother of Chimalpopoca, Tlacaelel I, and Huehue Zaca. 1], variant spellings include Motecuhzomatzin, Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma, Motēuczōmah, Muteczuma, and referred to retroactively in European sources as Moctezuma II, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of the Aztec Empire, reigning from 1502 to 1520. [28], Though the exact number of his children is unknown and the names of most of them have been lost to history, according to a Spanish chronicler, by the time he was taken captive, Moctezuma had fathered 100 children and fifty of his wives and concubines were then in some stage of pregnancy, though this estimate may have been exaggerated. Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, o Moctezuma ‘el respetable hijo último’, nació en 1466, tres años antes de que su padre, Axayácatl, fuera elegido sexto emperador o tlatoani azteca. Moctezuma II was the son of Ahuitzotl, and he succeeded his father as Emperor of the Aztec Empire in 1502, with Tenochtitlan serving as the seat of his rule. Moctezuma was aware of this and sent gifts to the Spaniards, probably in order to show his superiority to the Spaniards and Tlaxcalteca. Díaz states: "Many of the Mexican Chieftains and Captains knew him well and at once ordered their people to be silent and not to discharge darts, stones or arrows, and four of them reached a spot where Montezuma could speak to them."[11]. It is a compound of a noun meaning "lord" and a verb meaning "to frown in anger", and so is interpreted as "he is one who frowns like a lord"[3] or "he who is angry in a noble manner. Spanish nobility eftersom han hade en företrädare med namnet `` Moctezuma '' ( med... Pages: 1 ( 396 words ) Published: March 7,.! Was struck dead by a rock 1481, the 9th emperor of Aztec. 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